In addition to focusing on witticism and subtlety, Done applied a set of appealing allusions that are concentrated on cosmology, medicine, myth, contemporary discoveries, history, science, religion, art and law. Donna’s “The Flea” ears the testimony of argumentation through the consummation of physical love into spiritual one where the body of flea contains the blood of lover and beloved and lays out ardent passion for sensuous desire.
The poet expresses the idea thus: “Oh stay, three lives in one flea spare Where we almost, nay more than married are This flea is you and l, and this Our marriage bed, and marriage temple is;” Done is regarded as “the monarch of wit” 0. 8. Leashing) and so Dryden relevantly told: “If we are not so great wits as Done, we are certainly better poets. ” Donna’s wits are spontaneous, bizarre but to artificial and they lie in the sophisticated or ingenious use of expressions. T. S. Eliot assembles his wits in the synthesis of opposite expressions like the merging of thought and feeling, what he calls ‘sensuous apprehension of thought’.
Grievers, however, admired the logic of Done and he commented, “It is a strange choice to our mind, but apparently the poem was greatly admired as a masterpiece. ” The implication of swaying words in different poems especially “The Good Morrow’ is noteworthy where Done entices people to enjoy 327 viol. L . Issue. 4. ;2013 and roam around the world and the lover and the loved do not require to be bothered about these because they are the epitome of the whole world. The poet, here, expresses his vision thus: “Where can we find two better hemispheres Without sharp north, without declining west? Done, to some extent, appears to be realist by admitting mutual betrayal where lover is the ruler, beloved is the ruled, and vice versa. The lovers in Donna’s poetry are superior to earthly lovers; they are transcendental and ethereal where there is heaven. In “The Anniversary’ Done says such: “Here upon earth we are kings, and none but we Can be such kings, nor of such subjects be. Besides, the influential use of imagery in “The Connotation” bears one of the exquisite instances on witticism and subtlety of Done.
The lover and the beloved are imagined as fly chasing light one after another and they are ferocious like eagle as well as innocent like dove. The poet says thus: “And we in us find the eagle and the dove. ” Leashing says, “Donna’s monarchy of wit was not a trick or fashion but one of the achievements of the poetic intelligence. “Leashing is right in the sense that Donna’s wits do not only imply symbolic spirit of interrogation and discovery but also the embellishment f inner reflection and intellectualism, the rebellion and the conflict in the mind of Done.
The blending of witty and subtle remarks with emotion and feeling exposes John Donna’s scholasticism as a metaphysical poet and brings the whole of experience into his poetry in which profound interest of experience can be analyzed to meet up the psychological curiosity of writing love and religious poetry.
EXPERIMENTAL EXPLORATION OF LOVE IN DONNA’S POETRY
John Done, like the Elizabethan and the Romantic poets, did not give indulgence to emotional praise and overstating comparison of the beauty of loved, rather he subtly used rational and intellectual languages to legalize his arguments solid.
Love, though it is about the fantasy, imagination and surrealism in the Elizabethan poetry, it is a superb blending of ratiocination and originality on the one hand, hyperbole, and International Journal – http://www. R]Ella. Com veneration of beloved on the other hand. He made a discontinuity of high esteem and overstatement of beloveds physical beauty in his poetry like Shakespeare and used different objects through similes and metaphors to Justify his love which is the chemistry of logical and compelling emotion.
In Love’s Alchemy’, there lies an argument, though in terms of alchemy, of the fact of love and woman within the framework of marriage through the conceit of alchemy which has appalling, convincing metaphors as “chemic”, “elixir” “pregnant pot” and “mummy’. Done with an inquisitive mind about love did not present himself as an idealistic but as a realistic and experiential. Thus, the very first lines of the poem are obvious in expression: “Some that have deeper digger love’s mine than l, Say, where his centric happiness doth lie, I have loved and got, and told, But should I love, get, tell, till I were old,” (Love’s Alchemy)
Done, in this poem, attempted to show assertive approach to the reality of love Just as a ‘chemic’ did to the metal of gold. In this regard, alchemy being a pseudo-science was basically an “attempt to transmute base metals into gold or silver” (Colons, 1982:17). Donna’s poems, in fact, are less restrained and spontaneously annotated background of passion or irony, tenderness or teasing, a number of love-affairs before marriage and permanent friendship.
He did not follow the compassion and sentiment of his heart rather he put forward jurisdiction, hyperbole and paradoxes from medicine, cosmology and references from the Greek hydrology. The beginning of his poems catches readers’ attention and shows abrupt start chiding different objects like the sun or the friends for their interference in his love affairs with beloved. “The Sun Rising” and “The Connotation” show the hasty beginning without any prediction or background.
The poet starts thus: “For God’s sake, hold your tongue and let me love” (The Connotation) “Busy old fool, unruly sun, Why dost thou thus,” (The Sun Rising) Though the poet seems to be harsh and direct initially, he presents his love and emotion towards beloved with logic and ratiocination that distinguish Done from the Elizabethan poets. 328
Metaphysical poetry with its beauty and enigma combined with Donna’s feelings and attitudes distinctively appalling, questioning, passionate, sincere and extremely sensitive mind furnish this genre of literature.
John Done, duly said, is the harbinger of typical metaphysical poetry and, instead of cajoling the physical beauty of beloved like the Elizabethan poets, instituted cogent and scientific viewpoint on the dimension of love and affection with superb manifestation argumentation and ratiocination. Done espousing the exaggeration of beloveds beauty in songs and Monnet materialized his experimental and analytical attitude by comparing imaginary love with rational one and brought about authentic aspects of metaphysical poetry.
He influenced the readers with his wit, intellectualism, cross analysis and indulged to sudden attack of emotion through the originality of speech. Besides, he is prominent for inequality, obscurity and violence, which function as a catalyst to uphold the rudimentary quality of such poetry. His love poems that are full of intense emotion and sharp logic combined with convincing presentation refer to images, allusions and settings picked out room science, religion, philosophy, medicine, law and so on.